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1892

At the beginning of January, members of the Art Committee, including W. Ringrose Atkins, Thomas Crosbie, the Rev. M. Kerr and F. McMullen met to discuss their response to the news that their Chairman, the very Rev. Canon Sheehan, had just been offered the bishopric of Waterford, and had offered his resignation as chairman of the Art Committee of the School of Art. They agreed to ask him not to resign that year. [Cork Examiner, January 14th, 1892, p. 2, col. 6] The Crawford School of Art that year took in 75 students to its day classes, 129 to the evening classes. [Cork Examiner, February 19th, 1894, p. 6, col. 5]

The Irish Builder records the rebuilding of the fire-damaged Cork Courthouse, to the designs of architect W. H. Hill. The courthouse was formally reopened four years later. [The Irish Builder, Vol. XXXIV, No. 777, p. 99, May 1892]

1893

At the beginning of the term, in September, an examination was held to select eight free students, who would attend the School of Art without paying any fees until June 30th the following year. The only condition was that candidates should be under twenty-one years of age and have not attended the School of Art previously. This scheme was funded privately, by philanthropist Sir John Arnott, who subscribed £25 annually to fund the scheme. In addition, another examination was to be held on September 28th, to select the ten free students from the National Schools of the city, thus enabling a total of eighteen free students to attend the Crawford School of Art in the coming year. The Examiner commented 'this should tend to make our School of Art a thoroughly popular institution', although, in the event, only thirteen free students were admitted to the school in 1893. [Cork Examiner, Sept. 22nd, 1893, p. 5, col. 1; also Feb. 19th, 1894, p. 6, col. 5]

The report of the Art Committee, for the year ending 1893, was presented at the annual distribution of prizes, which took place in February of the following year. The Secretary, J. F. McMullen, recorded the achievements of the School under its headmaster W. A. Mulligan. It would appear that Mulligan was a person of some private means: the attention of the committee was directed "to the very handsome subscription given each year by Mr. Mulligan towards the salaries of the assistant teachers, the amount in 1892 being £80, and in 1893, £98." [Cork Examiner, 19th Feb. 1894, p. 6, col 5]. Students attending the School of Art now numbered 258 in total; just over a third of these were day students.

An exhibition of students' works was mounted in the School of Art at the end of January, to co-incide with the awards ceremony. [Cork Examiner, 31st Jan. 1894, p. 6, col. 1] This exhibition could not include the work of teacher Emily Anderson, who had excelled again in the national competition in South Kensington, winning a silver medal for her studies of historic lace designs, some of which had been purchased by the Science and Art Department. Patrick O'Sullivan's work was also on exhibition in South Kensington, where he gained a bronze medal for his measured drawing of the old Courthouse in Cork. Mrs. Kate Dobbin (Lady Kate Dobbin) was another talented student who could not be represented in the exhibition at the Cork School; she had sent four watercolours to Dublin for the RHA annual exhibition. As a student and a benefactor of the School, Lady Kate Dobbin in 1893 found herself in the curious position of winning an Arnott prize, for 'a beautiful monochrome from the cast', while fellow student Edith Breton won the Dobbin Prize for 'an admirably painted head from life'.  Other students represented at South Kensington were Maggie Bullen, Minnie Nagle and Isabel Treanor, who each gained a bronze medal for designs for lace, while Madeleine le Mesurier and Georgina Mackinley received book prizes, also for lace designs. Other book prizes went to John R. Roberts and Hugh Charde, the latter also receiving his Art Masters' Certificate. John Roberts won the first Arnott Prize, for 'a figure shaded from the antique', and the second Arnott Prize went to Madeleine le Mesurier. Two other Arnott prizes, for modelling in clay, went to Henry Clarke and Mr. George Coates. Isabel Treanor received a £50 scholarship from the 1883 Cork Exhibition Committee, while their second scholarship, for carpenters, masons, etc., went to Edward Corkery. A previous winner of this scholarship, Joseph O'Brien, had gone on to win a bronze medal at South Kensington for his architectural drawing. The building selected for the architectural drawing students' competition in Cork was the old Great Southern and Western Railway station ('the old Glanmire terminus'), and the architect W. H. Hill, who awarded the first prize to student P. H. Curtis, commented on the quality of the students' measured drawings. Notwithstanding this improvement, the annual prize fund of £6, which had been awarded each year by the Builders' Association, was withdrawn in 1893.
The exhibition of students' work at the Crawford included a section devoted to 'the best water-colour out-door sketch executed during the summer vacation'. About thirty sketches were exhibited in this section, with the Headmaster's Prize going to Miss Sarsfield. Other successful students in the exhibition included Miss Acheson, Sarah Kingston and John Merne, who won prizes for 'tinted ornament'.
Mulligan went on to report that the number of evening students had more than doubled over the previous four years, and now stood at158. He noted that the number of day students had decreased in the same period, but commented "it is clearly much more important that the artizan classes should flourish than that there should be a large number of ladies attending in the day time (hear, hear)." [Cork Examiner, 19th Feb. 1894, p. 6, col 5] Mulligan encouraged the lady students to try the wood-carving classes, and remarked on the fact that only a dozen students attended the clay modelling classes.

The following students had their works accepted 'for Art Masters' (or Mistresses') Certificates': James De Quincey, Jane Elwood, Minnie Nagle, Amy Whitelegge, Emily Anderson, Georgina Mackinlay, Patrick O'Sullivan, William Sullivan, John Roberts, Hugh Charde and Michael McNamara. Works were accepted for Art Class Teachers' Certificates from: Charlotte Biggs, William Ellis, Caroline Hill, William J. Hoare, Mary Kerr, David Long, Ernest Perry, Edith Russell and Jeanie Tobin. Many of the above-mentioned students also received third grade certificates in subjects such as 'Historic Ornament', 'Modelled Design', 'Drawing the Antique from Memory' and 'Drawing in Light and Shade', as did Edith M. Breton, James Archer, 'Miss Dobbin', Josephine Dunlea, Sarah Kingston, Bessie Stackpoole, Lilian O'Connell, John J. Lyttle, Chrissie K. Robertson, Nellie E. Robertson, Mida Lynch, Gerard O'Sullivan, Mary A. Hogan and Thomas E. Roberts. Second Grade Certificates were awarded to some of the above students, and also to Julia Good, Eveline Sutton, Edith St. F. Marks, Theodore E. Reed, John R. Reed, Alex P. O'Leary, James M. Walker, William H. Wallace, Edward Rogers, Gerald O'Sullivan, Stephen D. O'Sullivan, John G. Aherne, George C. Jeffreys, Daniel Fitzgibbon, Christopher R. Peters, Christopher Gamble, Edward W. Dale, Charles E. Dale, Henry B. Dale, John F. O'Brien, Teresa Dunlea, Joseph F. Dunscombe, Mary K. Barry, Anna M. Meehan, Bridget M. Murphy, Maurice F. Landers, Mary Duffy, Mattie Preston, Robert B. Chillingworth, Thomas Park, James Murphy, Samuel R. Hosford, Thomas B. Keymes, Louisa O'Leary, Albert Coakley, Alfred Coakley, Bridget M. Sheehy, Jeremiah Murphy, Thomas E. Campbell, Kathleen A. Spillane, Mary O'Sullivan, Howard Hill, James S. McBride, Samuel Walker, Harry H. Fenner, Ignatius O'Sullivan, Catherine Oakshott, Maggie McKinlay, Daisy McKinlay, Minnie Lyndon, Fred H. Dale, Edward W. Dale, John G. Merne, John J. Lyttle, Thomas Williamson, Mary A. Mulligan, Annie Glavin, Lilia O'Connell, Arthur T. Williams, James J. Neff, Nicholas Ellis, Michael Holland, Louis O'Regan, Henry Roberts, Patrick Harden Curtis, Kate E. Daly, Maurice Burke, William Corkery and Thomas Kelleher.

Students of Building Construction in 1893 included Cornelius Hegarty,  Ignatius O'Sullivan, Thomas Kelleher, Edward Corkery, James Lanigan, Daniel O'Regan, Patrick O'Connor, William Corkery, William Ellis, Thomas Kenealy, John Harrington, James Buckley, Arthur T. Williams, James C. O'Connell, Cornelius Fahey, William Carroll and Jeremiah Murphy.

In November 1893, readers of the Examiner were urged to visit an exhibition of three watercolour paintings by Cork artist William Magrath, at the Crawford School of Art gallery. The three works, entitled Trafalgar Square, An Ideal Head, and Bacchantes ('the vivacious figures in the foreground are admirably displayed against the bright blue of the Hellenic Sea'), were to be shown for only a few days, as the newspaper pointed out that the artist 'departs for America in a few days'. [Cork Examiner, 24th Nov. 1893, p. 5, col. 2](There are several works by Magrath in the permanent collection of the Crawford Art Gallery.)

James Griffin, of 42 Patrick Street, Cork, exhibited an etching entitled Cork from the Custom House Quay  at the annual RHA exhibition. [A. Stewart, Vol. I, p. 311]
The Cork watercolourist Harry Scully showed three landscapes at the RHA exhibition in 1893. Scully had his studio at 15 Nelson's Place, the house where once Richard Sainthill lived and Daniel Maclise painted. Scully was to exhibit a total of ninety-six portraits and landscapes of Cork, Brittany, Normandy, Cornwall and other rural areas at the Academy, showing each consecutive year until 1911, when he ceased to exhibit for a period of  twenty years. He re-emerges as an exhibitor at the Academy in 1931 and the following year, when he showed for the last time. [A. Stewart, Vol. III, p. 140] (Scully is represented by several watercolours in the Crawford Gallery permanent collection.)
Also at the Academy's annual exhibition was a work entitled Autumn, by Miss A. Sarsfield, of Doughcloyne, Cork. [A. Stewart, Vol. III, p. 133]
The watercolour painter Henry Albert Hartland, originally from Mallow, died at Liverpool on 28th November 1893, after falling from a cliff. [W. G. Strickland, Vol. I, p. 451; see also The Irish Builder, Vol. XXXV, No. 815, 1st Dec. 1893, p. 273]

An article in the June 15th 1893 edition of The Irish Builder illustrated R. Cochrane's designs for the proposed new customs offices at Queenstown (Cobh). [The Irish Builder, Vol. XXXV, No. 804, pp. 140-141, June 15th, 1893] Not far away, at Midleton, George C. Ashlin designed the new Catholic church, which was built in that same year. At the RHA exhibition the following year, Ashlin was to exhibit two designs for his New Church, at Midleton, Co. Cork; while some years later he designed a new Munster and Leinster Bank for this same town [A. Stewart, Vol. I, p. 21;The Irish Builder, Vol. XXXV, No. 808, 15th Aug. 1893, p. 193]

In Chicago, at the 1893 World Columbian Exposition, the Irish pavilion was an elaborate assemblage of replica Irish buildings designed by L. A. MacDonnell for Lady Aberdeen, an enthusiastic promoter of the Irish lace industry. The success of the Irish pavilion at Chicago resulted in a large number of orders for Irish lace from the convents in counties Cork and Kerry. [Nicola Gordon Bowe "The Irish Arts and Crafts Movement (1886-1925)" GPA Irish Arts Review Yearbook 1990-1991, p. 175] 

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1894

At the beginning of May, the South Kensington Examinations took place at the Crawford School of Art. Thirty-nine students presented themselves for the first of these examinations, which were on plane and solid geometry. An inspector, Colonel Meredith, from South Kensington was in attendance, and several superintendents from the school committee. [Cork Examiner, p. 30th April 1894, p. 5, col. 8] The second examination was in "Principles of Ornament", followed by "Elementary Perspective" and "Freehand Drawing from the Cast". Other South Kensington inspectors who attended were Colonel Owen and Captain Bland, the latter presiding over the examination 'Drawing of ornament in monochrome'. [Cork Examiner, 12th May 1894, p. 5, col. 3]

The results of the South Kensington Examinations were published on September 10th, in the Cork Examiner. Maggie Bullen and Lizzie Perry each won a Bronze medal for crochet designs, and a National Book prize for their designs for lace, as did also Georgina Mackinlay, Minnie Nagle, Chrissie Robertson and Georgina Sutton. John R. Roberts also received a book prize, for a shaded drawing of the head of the Laocoon. Hugh Charde won two book prizes, one for a measured drawing of the pulpit in SS Peter and Paul's church, the other for a measured drawing of the facade of St. Mary's Church, Pope's Quay. Lizzie Perry won a book prize for a set of historic studies of old lace. Two other prize winners were George Coates and Patrick O'Sullivan.

Several of the above-mentioned students had their work accepted for Art Masters' and Mistresses' Certificates, as did also Emily Anderson (for a 'set of designs from plant forms adapted to certain manufactures'), Teresa Dunlea, Mary Hogan, Sarah Kingston and Lilian O'Connell. [Cork Examiner, 10th Sept. 1894, p. 6, col. 3]

Other students successful in the May examinations were Sara Acheson, Florence E. Anglin, William H. Baker, Charlotte Biggs, Denis J. Buckley, Thomas E. Campbell, Arthur H. Carleton, Josephine Casey, Robert B. Chillingworth,  Alfred Coakley, William Corkery, Minnie Cotter, Patrick H. Curtis, Kate E. Daly, Adelaide D. E. De Foubert, Joseph F. Dunscombe, Josephine Dunlea, William F. Ellis, William Ellis, Jeannie Elwood, Harry H. Fenner, Christopher Gamble, Julia Good, Winnifred E. Hannon, Denis F. Hayes, Nora Healy, John F. Hegarty, Elizabeth Johnstone, Mary J. Kearney, Mary K. Kerr, Thomas B. Keyms, James Lanigan, Madeline Le Mesurier, David J. Long, William Low, John J. Lyttle, Madeline Merne, John G. Merne, Charles McGovern, Michael McNamara, Jeremiah M. Murphy, James C. O'Connell, Richard F. O'Connor, Alice M. A. O'Connor, Patrick O'Connor, Louisa O'Leary, William J. O'Mahony, Daniel M. O'Regan, Kate O'Reilly, Edmund B. O'Sullivan, John J. O'Sullivan, Christopher R. Peters, Fannie L. Pratt, Theodore E. Reed, James P. Reen, Sarah A. Reynolds, Michael Riordan, Thomas E. Roberts, Eleanor C. Robertson, Alice Rodgers, John H. Rutter, Franziska M. A. Schroter, Maurice B. Shaw, Bridget M. Sheehy, Kathleen A. Spillane, Monica M. Sullivan, Jane E. Tobin, Florence Treanor, Berti Welti, Amy S. F. Whitelegge, Thomas Williamson, Alexander H. Wilson, Anna E. Wolfe and Richard B. Wood. [Ibid.]

On September 14th, the competition for the Arnott Scholarships took place at the School of Art. The only restrictions on applicants were that they had to be aged 21 years or less, and that they must not have previously attended the School. The examination was a very simple one:

candidates being merely asked to copy a large drawing of ornament, and reduce it in size so as to fit the piece of drawing paper supplied to them. As every candidate will have to draw from the same copy, it is easy to compare their work, and to see which of them displays most correctness of eye and skill of hand. [Cork Examiner, 14th Sept. 1894, p. 5, col. 3]

In all, there were eighteen free studentships offered at the Crawford School of Art in 1894. 

Miss Mary M. Hartog of Military Road, Cork, exhibited A Sketch at the RHA in 1894, and another work the following year. [A. Stewart, Vol. II, p. 59] She was probably the daughter of the Professor Hartogg who demonstrated the use of the microscope and other scientific instruments at the 'Conversazione' held at the School of Art in 1886 (q.v.).

1895

The 1895 winter session at the Crawford School of Art opened on Monday, September 2nd and continued until January 31st the following year. In keeping with the policy of trying to promote technical education, students at the School were now segregated into 'Industrial' and 'Non-Industrial'. There was an emphasis on teaching technical drawing, with Geometry and Perspective now vying with Artistic Anatomy and Historic Ornament. Classes for Machine and Building Construction had also been established at the School; there was no mention of 'Drawing from the Antique', although presumably this still formed a significant part of the curriculum. [Cork Examiner, 3rd Sept. 1895, p. 4, col. 3]

The results of the South Kensington examinations held the previous May were published in the Cork Examiner on September 6th. As usual, these examinations had consisted both of  students' work being sent from Cork to the Department of Science of Art at South Kensington for assessment, as well as the personal examinations held at the School of Art in Cork, under the superintendence of South Kensington inspectors.

Yet again, the honours went mainly to the lace designers, with Lizzie Perry being awarded a silver medal for a set of designs for crochet; Georgina Mackinlay, a bronze medal, also for crochet designs; Maggie Bullen, Madeline Le Mesurier, and Minne Nagle, each a national book prize for designs for lace; Patrick O'Sullivan, a bronze medal for anatomical drawing, and other prizes, while Georgina Sutton, Jeanie Tobin, Thomas Roberts and Hugh Charde each received a prize of ten shillings for their work over the year.

Most of the above-mentioned students had works accepted for the Art Masters' or Mistresses' Certificates, as did also Emily Anderson, Nora T. Galvin, Elizabeth Johnstone and Amy Whitelegge. Other students successful in the May examinations were Leopold Allan, Robert F. Allan, Florence E. Anglin, Charlotte Biggs, Thomas E. Campbell, Arthur H. Carleton, May Chillingworth, Amy M. J. Clanchy, Alfred Coakley, Edward Corkery, John D. Curtin, Patrick H. Curtis, Adelaide D. E. De Foubert, John Dillon, Kate Dobbin ('Painting from Still-life'), Theresa Dunlea, William Ellis, David Ellis, Hugh W. Flanagan, Richard Farren, Michael J. Foley, Jessie Goldfoot, Julia Good, James G. Goulding, Mary Nora Lane, Joseph G. Lendrum, Mary Linehan, John J. Lyttle, William Low, William J. Mahony, Anita McCarthy, Timothy McCarthy, James McBride, Francis P. McDonnell, Robert McKechnie, Michael McNamara, John G. Merne, Benedict J. A. Murray, Cornelius M. O'Connell, Lilian O'Connell, Richard F. O'Connor, Patrick O'Connor, John F. O'Donnell, Arthur O'Keefe, Louisa O'Leary, Kathleen J. O'Reilly, Ignatius O'Sullivan, John J. O'Sullivan, Stephen D. O'Sullivan, Richard Perrott, James P. Reen, Jane E. Reynolds, Lina Reynolds, Michael Riordan, John R. Roberts, Elizabeth A. Roche, John H. Rutter, Denis Santry, Franziska M. A. Schroter, Bridget Sheehy, Florence Sheppard, Kathleen A. Spillane, Dominic F. Sullivan, Monica M. Sullivan, Edith Wolfe and Richard B. Wood. [Cork Examiner, 6th Sept. 1895, p. 6, col. 1]

Of the above students, Denis Santry was singled out by John Gilbert in an article written in 1913. Santry by then had been working for a number of years as a cartoonist in South Africa, where he regularly contributed to the South African Times, having been forced to emigrate from Ireland because of ill-health. Before leaving Ireland, Santry had been apprenticed to J. F. McMullen, architect and civil engineer. [John Gilbert, "Authors, Artists and Musical Composers", p. 179]

Mrs. M. Impey Pearse, of Milbrook, Bandon, Co. Cork, showed two works entitled Japanese Chrysanthemums and a portrait entitled Little Vera, at the RHA annual exhibition; the only time she exhibited with the Academy. [A. Stewart, Vol. III, p. 70]

A new hospital on the Western Road, Cork, designed by architect J. F. McMullen, was built in 1895. [The Irish Builder, Vol. XXXVII, No. 863, 1st Dec, 1895]

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1896

The annual distribution of prizes for 1896 took place early in January of the following year, with the Mayor, Mr. P. H. Meade, presiding. Among those present were the Protestant Bishop of Cork, the Rt. Rev. Dr. Meade; Sir John Harley Scott, Ald. A. Roche and the Rev. C. F. Whitelegge. School staff present included the headmaster, W. A. Mulligan, and the secretary, J. F. McMullen. McMullen read the report of the Art Committee for the year ending June 1896. The number of students had remained unchanged from the previous year, at 223. In addition, there were 23 students 'from the artizan classes' studying Building Construction, and 24 studying Machine Construction, but the report wondered if some arrangement could be made whereby 'apprentices and others might be induced to attend regularly and punctually during the session'. Mulligan noted that only 37 of these artisan students had not attended any art classes, and so were not included on the register of art students. A student teacher from the Crawford School, Patrick O'Sullivan, who had consistently won prizes in previous years' examinations and who had also served for a time as art master in Galway, had been admitted in 1896 as 'a Master in Training' at the Royal College of Art in South Kensington. He was replaced as teacher in the Elementary Room in the Crawford by John Roberts. Another talented student teacher, Michael McNamara, had received a two-year scholarship to attend the Royal College of Art, from the committee of the 1883 Cork Exhibition, while a similiar scholarship was awarded to Miss Albina Collins, of the Kinsale art class. McNamara was replaced in the Modelling Room in Cork by Hugh Charde. The two most recent recipients of these Cork Exhibition scholarships were Madeline Le Mesurier and Denis Santry; the latter also winning the Queen's prize for 'freehand drawing' and being placed joint first in the United Kingdom in this section. In the National competition, several awards had been made to students of the Cork school: Emily Anderson won a bronze medal for a design for a lace fan cover; Georgina MacKinlay won two prizes, including a bronze medal for a crochet design. Prizes also went to Lizzie Perry, Maggie Bullen, Minnie Nagle, Jeanie Tobin and Thomas Roberts. [Cork Examiner, 12th January 1897, p. 7, col. 4]

The death occured at St. Anne's Hill, Blarney, on 5th January 1896, of sculptor Richard Barter (c.1824-1896). [W. G. Strickland, Vol. I, p. 46]

1897

The annual South Kensington examinations were held in April and May of 1897. About 98,000 works were submitted from the various schools and classes in the United Kingdom. Of these, 5,853 were selected for the National competition, and 875 medals and prizes were awarded. As the average number of awards to each School of Art in the U. K. was just a fraction over two, the achievement of the Crawford School in obtaining thirteen medals and book prizes was a source of  considerable pride to the staff and students. Among the prize winning students were Emily Anderson, Minnie Nagle, Lizzie Perry, Sarah Reynolds, Hugh Charde, Patrick O'Sullivan, Georgina Sutton, Jeanie Tobin and Amy Whitelegge. Practically all the prizes awarded to female students were for designs for lace or embroidery. Again, most of the prize-winning students also had works accepted for the Art Masters' or Mistresses' Certificate.

Other students listed in the 1897 report were Mamie Alcock, George Atkinson, Bertie Barrett, Charles Barrett, John T. Barry, Charlotte Biggs, James W. Bogan, William E. Boyle, Robert Burgess, Sydney Burrowes, Ernest T. Campbell, John J. Cashman, Daniel Corkery, Edward Corkery, John Costello, Daniel C. Cotter, Daniel Day, Margaret E. Dobbin, Timothy J. Drury, Theresa Dunlea, Joseph F. Dunscombe, Amelia M. Dwyer, Joseph Ellis, John L. Fallon, William Feehely, Adelaide D. E. de Foubert, Norah T. Galvin, Charles Geeve, Mary Gillman, Jessie Goldfoot, Julia Good, Michael Good, Johnathan G. Hare, Addison A. Hargrave, Denis F. Hayes, Annie Hill, Margaret Hurley, George Jago, Joshua Keyms, Louis Le Mesurier, Robert Love, Maggie Low, Minnie Lyndon, Josephine M. Madden, John G. Magahy, James McBride, Sarah A. McElwee, Madeline M. Merne, John G. Merne, Clara Miller, Henry W. Milner, Josephine M. Murphy, Sara L. Musgrave, Patrick O'Brien, James J. O'Brien, John J. O'Brien, John J. O'Sullivan, Stephen O'Sullivan, Richard Perrott, Cecilia Phillips,  Esther H. Price, William J. Randall, James P. Reen, Lina Reynolds, Daniel Riordan, Michael Riordan, Hugh Russell, Franziska M. A. Schroter, Bertha Schroter, Lily Sexton, Thomas Sheffield, Florence Sheppard, Frances H. Shortt, Kathleen A. Spillane, Denis Stack, Dominic F. Sullivan, Monica Sullivan, Samuel H. Wilson, Walter Wilson and Edith Wolfe.

The engraver John Ross, who had worked on many of the monumental brasses in St. Finbarr's cathedral in Cork, died on 1st December, 1897, aged 70. Ross also designed and engraved book-plates, and heraldic designs on silverware. [W. G. Strickland, Vol. II, p. 300]

A painter named John E. Foster, of the Hibernian Hotel in Cork, exhibited a painting entitled In Cork Harbour at the annual RHA exhibition. Foster was to exhibit Cork scenes at the RHA for the next three years. [A. Stewart, Vol. I, p. 271]

Also in 1897, the watercolourist Beatrice Gubbins, of Dunkathel House near Cork, exhibited for the first time at the RHA. Miss Gubbins, a long-serving member of the Queenstown Sketching Club, continued to exhibit at the RHA until 1937. [A. Stewart, Vol. I, p. 312]

In August 1897, The Irish Builder published a report on the rebuilding of the Catholic church at Castletownroche. The architect was S. F. Hynes. [The Irish Builder, Vol. XXXIX, No. 904, p. 164, Aug. 15, 1897] The previous year, Hynes had designed the new Catholic church at Lisgriffin, Co. Cork. [The Irish Builder, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 882, 15th Sept. 1896, p. 195] In September, the same periodical contained a report on a new Catholic church being built at Clonakilty, which was designed by George C. Ashlin. [The Irish Builder, Vol. XXXIX, No. 906, p. 180, Sept. 15, 1897]

1898

Another amateur Cork artist, Miss Jennie Ashton Hackett, of 43 Patrick Street, exhibited three works at the RHA. [A. Stewart, Vol. I, p. 44] Miss Hackett, who only showed at the Academy in 1898 and 1906, is not recorded as being a student at the School of Art.

1899

1899

On January 5th 1899, the Examiner reported on the exhibition of students work at the Crawford School of Art. The correspondent described Benedict Murray's pen and ink illustrations of Allingham's 'Fairies' as 'a clever piece of draughtsmanship'. On a more mechanical level, Patrick O'Sullivan's measured drawing of the facade of St. Patrick's Church was described as 'a creditable piece of work'. Ernest Campbell also showed some machine drawings, while J. T. Barry submitted drawings of the Carmichael Schools, which won him the Lord Mayor's gold medal.

Modelling in clay seems to be popular with the students . . .A good instance of this may be seen in a design for a friese modelled by  -- Hegarty; convention head and swag ornament in high relief, a boldness is obtained which has a fine decorative effect. . A panel and border for ceiling decoration by J. J. O'Sullivan, . .Design for Dado in Lincrusta-walton, by Jeannie Tobin . . S. O'Sullivan shows a panel designed for the same purpose . . .The works by D. Fitzgibbon, G. Atkinson and J. Holland are promising. The show of lace designs is one of the features of the exhibition. Lace designing is essentially the role of woman, and M. Lefebure observes; it is by the needle rather than the paint-brush or chisel, woman's influence should be felt in art! . . .Georgina Sutton, in her designs for Limerick Lace, suggests a motto, "dainty patterns for dainty textures" . . . a fan, by Nora Galvin, is particularly good, so are designs for crochet by Amy Whitelegge. This student also shows a quaint cover for that quaint book "The Compleat Angler" in silk embroidery. Emily Anderson's design for tea-cloth is a rich and harmonious work . . . one  of the most successful designs of the year is that of continuous damask, by S. A. Reynolds. [Cork Examiner, 5th Jan. 1899, p. 3, col. 5]

Three lady artists from Cork, Alicia J. E. Kendrick of Old Dromore in Mallow, Rose Lynch of Mount Vernon and Mary Nora Lane of Fairy Hill in Monkstown, exhibited  in the 1899 RHA exhibition. Miss Lane showed a view at Monkstown, Miss Lynch; a piece entitled Autumn Flowers, while Miss Kendrick exhibited four works, one of which was titled Where Once a Garden Smiled. [A. Stewart, Vol. II, pp. 150, 177, 210]

Another new parish church built in Co. Cork was at Milford, in1899, with M. A. Hennessy as architect. [The Irish Builder, Vol. XLI, No. 944, 1st May 1899, p. 55]

1900

Interest in lace and other fine fabric arts continued to burgeon in the first year of the twentieth century. A loan exhibition which included lace and fabric designs was shown in the School of Art in October 1900 and caused such a wave of interest that the headmaster, W. A. Mulligan, was forced to write a letter to the  Examiner on October 16th, stating that the recently formed crochet classes at the School had been established specifically to help crochet workers 'who wish to earn money by their work'. Mulligan emphasised that the classes were intended only for 'bona fide' workers, who could get instruction in designing crochet for a nominal fee, but he added that he had no objection to forming a new class, at a higher fee, for the large number of 'lady amateurs' who had applied. [Cork Examiner, 17th Oct. 1900, p. 5, col. 3]

The classes commenced operation towards the end of October. There were twenty students in what was called 'the industrial class'; a separate class had been formed for the 'lady amateurs', who paid 10s a quarter, as opposed to the half-crown paid by the 'bona fide' workers. The classes for Limerick lace-making, which had been established two years previously, had also proved a great success, with fifty-two 'industrial students' and twenty-one 'lady amateurs'. Even with these large numbers studying lace design, it was said that they could not keep up with the demand from various manufacturing centres in Ireland and, occasionally, England. [Cork Examiner, 24th October 1900, p. 4, col. 8]

Mulligan was convinced that there was a ready market in England for lace and crochet designs, and quoted dealers in London

The Cork Examiner of July 21st 1900 reported that through the generosity of Mr. William Gumbleton J. P., 'of Belgrove near Queenstown', the School of Art had been able to purchase a cast of the statue of Teucer by Hamo Thornycroft. The original work had been exhibited at the Royal Academy some years previously, where it had been purchased by the Chantry Bequest for the Tate Gallery in London. "This cast will be a great boon to students of the School of Art, the surface anatomy of the human figure being very thoroughly portrayed." [Cork Examiner, 21st July 1900, p. 5, col. 6]

At the RHA annual exhibition, the Dublin architectural firm of Parry & Ross showed drawings of the Library at Castle Freke in Co. Cork. [A. Stewart, Vol. III, p. 64]

CONCLUSION and ADDENDA

Several Cork artists from the turn of the century have not been mentioned in the foregoing chronology, including Samuel Wright, described by John Gilbert in 1913 as 'an artist of great promise' who unfortunately died at an early age. Wright's father, a Quaker, ran a grocery store in Cork: his son refused to enter the business, preferring instead to make a tenous living as an artist. He painted the decorative panels in the Palace Theatre. Gilbert also mentions a painting by Wright, in the Cork School of Art. [John Gilbert "Authors, Artists and Musical Composers", p. 178]

Gilbert also refers to a Cork sculptor named Seamus O'Brien, born in Glenbrook, who had emigrated to San Francisco, where he worked as an artist. This is probably the James J. O'Brien listed as a student in 1897. Gilbert adds that he won a Silver Medal in the National Art Competition in South Kensington. O'Brien was also an author and playwright. [Ibid., p. 178]

Thomas Fitzpatrick (1859-1913) was a humorous and satirical artist, who, after being apprenticed to a Cork lithographic firm for several years, began to produce drawings and build a career as an artist, providing cartoons for newspapers in Dublin. He subsequently started his own magazine, called The Lepracaun, for which he provided all the drawings. [Ibid., p. 179]

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